Even in ancient times there were screw and spiral structures, however they are not to be compared with the modern screw or threading tools. As an inventor of the mathematical theory of water-spiral, water-snail and screw-pump, Archimedes is from Syracuse (287-22 of Christ). Archimedes was a Greek mathematician, helical structures to irrigate fields studied during his stay in Egypt. Therefore, this is also known under the name “Archimedes’ screw”. There are traditions, interpret the fact that long before Archimedes time, water snails were known as an aid in agriculture. To date, these are used in Egypt on the Nile.
Function of the water screw
The Archimedes screw consists of a tube in that a central axis is installed. To this central axis, a scroll is mounted again. At the upper and lower end are openings so that water can flow on or. By the rotation of the screw, the water is pushed into the chambers, and finally transported to the top. In antiquity, the Archimedes screw was made of wood and finally sealed with pitch. A construction manual can be found in the work: Ten Books on Architecture (de architectura libri decem) by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. The Roman architect and engineer provides in band X machine (Machinarum see Chap. 6) a detailed design guide.
The Archimedes screw was however used not only for irrigation, but also for dewatering. In particular, the Romans succeeded, with several juxtaposed Archimedean screw down their mines and mines dry. This enabled the promotion of precious metals, which were necessary among other things for coin production. Without this, the Romans no wars of conquest might have led. Well-preserved water screw Roman historians found circa 1883-1884 in the southwestern parts of Spain.